Gyro stabilization, the IMU and flight controller is essential for a drone to fly perfectly. Three and six axis gyro stabilization technology provide navigational information to the flight controller and make drones easier and safer to fly.
Gyro stabilization technology is one of the components which gives us the smooth flight capabilities allowing us to film fantastic aerial views of our beautiful planet. This innovative technology has opened up drones to many sectors.
Drone innovation has come a long way in just the past 2 years. Today’s drones combine top quality gyro stabilization within the IMU. Adding this technology with autonomous flight modes allow drones to fly perfectly still and produce top quality 3D maps, photogrammetry and lidar imagery. Integrated gimbals with stabilization give the cameras and sensors even more ability to capture perfect aerial film and photos.
In this article, we look at what is gyro stabilization; the function of gyroscopes in drones; differences between three and six-axis gyro stabilization. We list the latest drones with programmable gyro stabilized autonomous flight modes and systems. There is also a number of very informative videos throughout this article.
I hope you enjoy the information and knowledge in this article.
Drone Gyro Stabilization
The main function of gyroscope technology is to improve the drones flight capabilities. With six axis drone stabilization working with other components, every aspect improves such as flying or hovering perfectly stable and steeper angled turns. The gyroscope needs to work almost instantly to the forces moving against the drone. The gyroscope provides essential navigational information to the central flight control systems.
Now, you can have the very best 6 axis gyroscope technology but if your drone’s hardware (propellers, motors, bearings, shafts etc) are not straight, clean or functioning correctly, then your drone will fly erratically and possibly even crash.
It is always a great idea to examine your drone’s parts before and after every flight. Have spare parts just in case you notice something is cracked or bent. Keep you drone clean. If all the components look fine and your drone is flying erratically bring it back in straight away.
The next best practice would be to re-calibrate the IMU on a flat surface. Sometimes you need to re-calibrate the IMU more than once. After that, you can check your drone manufacturers website for a software update to fix a bug. After that you could possibly be looking at returning your drone for a repair.
Gyroscope Technology Within The IMU
In the vast majority of drones, the gyroscope is encompassed or integrated within the IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit). The IMU along with satellite positioning (GPS and GLONASS) are also components of the overall drone flight controller.
The Essential IMU
An inertial measurement unit works by detecting the current rate of acceleration using one or more accelerometers. The IMU detects changes in rotational attributes like pitch, roll and yaw using one or more gyroscopes. Some IMU include a magnetometer, mostly to assist calibration against orientation drift.
A computer continually calculates the vehicle’s current position. First, it integrates the sensed acceleration, together with an estimate of gravity, to calculate the current velocity. Then it integrates the velocity to calculate the current position.
IMU Within The Flight Controller
The flight controller is made up of many components and provides many functions. It is the central brain of the drone. So, we can now see that the Gyroscope is a component of the IMU and the IMU is an essential component of a drones flight control system.
Flight controllers are not just hardware. They are also controlled by sophisticated software programs and mathematical algorithms. All components within the flight controller must work seamlessly together for the drone to navigate and fly with the utmost of stability.
Here are just some of the functions in the DJI A2 flight controller with the gyroscope and IMU providing essential functions;
The first gyroscope was invented by John Serson in 1743 with various gyro machines coming in the following years. Some of the first mechanical gyros used two heavy brass discs spinning at high speed to detect changes in yaw. The earlier heavy and power consuming technology has since been replaced with modern non-mechanical alternatives that can do much more beyond yaw correction.
The small size and low power consumption of modern gyroscopes have made the technology indispensable to the aircraft, mobile devices and of course drone industry. This first 5 minute video explains precisely what a gyroscope is.
Gyro Stabilization In Drones
To understand the role of gyro stabilization, it’s important to realize that every drone is constantly being subjected to a number of forces coming from different directions. These forces, such as wind, affect drone’s yaw, pitch, and roll, thus, potentially, making the drone very hard to control.
Integrated gyroscopes can almost instantly detect changes in the position of a drone and compensate for it in such a way that it basically seems unaffected as it re-adjusts it’s position hundreds of time every second or can hover calmly in place. Modern gyroscopes are manufactured with components between 1 to 100 micrometers in size and often include sensors for multiple axes in a single package.
Three-Axis Vs Six-Axis Gyro Stabilization
Three-axis gyroscopes measure rotation rate around, you’ve guessed it, 3 axes: roll, pitch and yaw.
- Roll: rotation around the front-to-back axis
- Pitch: rotation around the side-to-side axis
- Yaw: rotation around the vertical axis
Gyros keep giving non-zero readings as long as the rotation continues. However, when the rotation stops, the gyro goes silent, because, as far as it is concerned, everything is as it should be.
So, what are the 3 additional axes measured by a six-axis gyroscope? None. There are only 3 possible axes that a gyro can measure. Instead, the term “six-axis gyro” actually refers to an integrated system that consists of a 3D gyroscope (3 axis) and 3D accelerometer. Very rarely, the accelerometer can be replaced with a 3D compass.
The function of the 3D accelerometer is to measure the orientation of a drone relative to earth’s surface. It works by sensing the acceleration of gravity using the same technology that is also behind gyroscopes, MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems). These tiny electro-mechanical structures can interface to electronics, allowing engineers to build some pretty amazing stuff on an extremely small space.
Now, here is a great video which shows you exactly how an accelerometer works. This uses a mobile phone but the principle is the same for drones.
Advantages of Six-Axis Gyro Stabilization
The combination of 3D gyro and 3D accelerometer allows a six-axis gyro to measure the amount of static acceleration due to gravity and also the amount of dynamic acceleration. These two measurements help us determine the angle the device is tilted and figure out the way the device is moving.
As a result, drones with this type of gyro are much more stable and forgiving, which is great especially for beginners who are just learning how to fly. They also respond quicker to any unexpected forces affecting the movement of the drone such as gusts of wind, thus potentially preventing the drone from crashing. A regular three-axis gyro doesn’t help much during sharp banked turns, compared to a six-axis gyro, which makes such advanced maneuvers effortless.
All in all, six-axis gyro stabilization is very useful for just about anyone from complete beginners to seasoned pros who want to push their drone to the maximum limit. Using a drone for advanced applications such 3D imagery, 6-axis gyroscope stabilization is essential.
Accelerometer & Gyroscope Example
Below is an excellent video which shows you how a drone uses the 3 axis accelerometer, gyroscope, ToF distance sensor (Teraranger One) and a camera to stabilize itself after been thrown in the air.
The accelerometer detects that it has been thrown in the air and is falling back to the ground. The gyroscope then stabilize it’s orientation within a split second. Next, the distance sensor stabilizes the drone to a particular pre-programmed height from the ground. Then the drone locks to it’s current position. This is a terrific and well explained video.
Latest Drones With Best Flight Stabilization
Here are some of the latest drones with the best integrated GPS, gyro stabilization, IMU technology and autonomous flight systems. These also have stabilized gimbals and 4k video cameras. These drones have many safety features such as home lock and return to home. These are all fantastic drones.
DJI Mavic Pro – This new fold up drone flies and hovers perfectly still. The technology is called “FlightAutonomy” and is made up of 7 components including 5 cameras (forward and downward dual vision sensors and the main camera), dual-band satellite positioning (GPS and GLONASS), 2 ultrasonic rangefinders, redundant sensors, and a group of 24 powerful, specialized computing cores.
Cameras on the left and right side in the front of the Mavic are fixed in place using an aluminum bracket to ensure the optimum alignment of the vision sensor lenses.
As the Mavic flies, dual forward and downward vision sensors measure the distance between itself and obstacles by taking photos from all four cameras and using the information to create a 3D map that tells it exactly where obstacles are.
The dual forward and downward vision sensors require visible light to function, and in bright light can see as far as 49ft (15m) out in front.This obstacle avoidance system is activated in every Intelligent Flight Mode including all ActiveTrack modes, TapFly and Terrain Follow. It is also available during automatic Return to Home, so that the Mavic can easily make its way back without bumping into anything in its path.
DJI Phantom 4 Pro – Only released in November 2016, this quadcopter has many gyro stabilized autonomous flight modes including collision avoidance and vision sensing. The programmable gyroscope stabilized flight modes are Draw Waypoints, TapFly, ActiveTrack Follow Me, Terrain Follow, Gesture Mode, Sports mode and many more. This latest drone from DJI has in integrated stabilized gimbal and can capture stunning 4k video and take 12 megapixel stills. Read this fantastic article which looks closely at the Phantom 4 Pro including it’s many intelligent flight modes and collision avoidance technology.
DJI have a number of quality drones with the best flight control stabilization such as the Phantom 3, Phantom 4 and Inspire 1.
Yuneec Typhoon H – The latest multirotor from Yuneec which was on show at CES 2016 has everything you could possibly look for in a drone. It has many gyro stabilized integrated autonomous flight modes such as Orbit, Points Of Interest, Journey, Curve Cable Cam, Follow Me / Watch me. It can shoot video in 4k and capture 12 megapixel stills with it’s integrated 3 axis stabilized gimbal.
Six Axis Gyro Stabilization Benefits
There are many areas outside of the aerial photography and filming which benefit from drone six axis gyroscope stabilization technologies.
Drone Acrobatics And Racing
Many people enjoy drones just for the pure pleasure of acrobatics and racing. Flying at steep angles and especially flipping a drone without crashing is difficult without six axis gyro stabilization. Drone racing is a real growing sport and this relies of very fast flight control systems as the courses are fully with obstacles.
3D Mapping And Photogrammetry
This next drone video is from a project where Pix4D, together with Canadian drone manufacturer Aeryon Labs Inc and PUC University of Rio De Janeiro created the first 3D map of the Christ The Redeemer statue in Rio.
The changing weather and conditions with gusts of wind up to 50 km per hour made this project particularly difficult. This project would not have been possible flying a drone manually. With gusts of wind, the drone would easily drift of course by a few meters in a split second before the pilot could react.
The drone’s flight control system with 6 axis gyro stability being an essential component along with GPS, waypoint navigation made this project possible. Many other projects and sectors are benefiting from this technology first invented way back hundreds of years ago.
In this final video, we learn how the MEMS accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer work and how to use them with the Arduino Board.